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C# Introduction


C# (pronounced C Sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language that encompasses functional, imperative, generic and object-oriented (class-based) programming disciplines. It is developed by Microsoft as part of the .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by ECMA (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270). Anders Hejlsberg, the designer of Delphi, leads development of the C# language, which has an object-oriented syntax based on C++ and includes influences from aspects of several other programming languages (most notably Delphi and Java) with a particular emphasis on simplification.

 

Design goals

The ECMA standard lists these design goals for C#:

» C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.

» Because software robustness, durability and programmer productivity are important, the language should include strong    type checking, array bounds checking, detection of attempts to use uninitialized variables, source code portability, and    automatic garbage collection.

» The language is intended for use in developing software components that can take advantage of distributed    environments.

» Programmer portability is very important, especially for those programmers already familiar with C and C++.

» Support for internationalization is very important.

» C# is intended to be suitable for writing applications for both hosted and embedded systems, ranging from the very    large that use sophisticated operating systems, down to the very small having dedicated functions.

» Although C# applications are intended to be economical with regard to memory and processing power requirements, the    language is not intended to compete directly on performance and size with C or assembly language.

 

History

In 1996, Sun Microsystems released the Java programming language, for which Microsoft purchased a license to implement Java in their operating system. Java was originally meant to be a platform independent language, but Microsoft, in their implementation, broke their license agreement and made a few changes that would essentially inhibit Java's platform-independent capabilities. Sun filed a lawsuit and Microsoft settled, deciding to create their own version of a partially compiled, partially interpreted object-oriented programming language with syntax closely related to that of C++.
During the development of .NET, the class libraries were originally written in a language/compiler called Simple Managed C (SMC).[2][3][4] In January 1999, Anders Hejlsberg formed a team to build a new language at the time called Cool, which stood for "C like Object Oriented Language".[5] Microsoft had considered keeping the name "Cool" as the final name of the language, but chose not to do so for trademark reasons. By the time the .NET project was publicly announced at the July 2000 Professional Developers Conference, the language had been renamed C#, and the class libraries and ASP.NET runtime had been ported to C#.

C#'s principal designer and lead architect at Microsoft is Anders Hejlsberg, who was previously involved with the design of Visual J++, Borland Delphi, and Turbo Pascal. In interviews and technical papers he has stated that flaws in most major programming languages (e.g. C++, Java, Delphi, and Smalltalk) drove the fundamentals of the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which, in turn, drove the design of the C# programming language itself. Some argue that C# shares roots in other languages




 

 

 
     
                   
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